Canine Coronavirus Antigen

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NAT41590-100
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CANINE CORONAVIRUS ANTIGEN

Canine Coronavirus (CCoV) antigen has been manufactured for use in the detection of antibodies against CCoV for immunoassay development or other applications.

 

PRODUCT DETAILS – CANINE CORONAVIRUS ANTIGEN

  • Canine Coronavirus antigen.
  • Native antigen purified from coronavirus infected A-72 cells.
  • The antigen is presented in 50 Mm Glycine Buffer, pH 9, 140 Mm NaCl.
  • This material has been UV and detergent inactivated (<0.1% CHAPS, <0.01% SDS).
  • For ELISA development or other applications.

 

BACKGROUND

Canine coronavirus (CCoV) belongs to the genus Alphacoronavirus and forms a unique species, Alphacoronavirus 1, along with feline coronaviruses (FCoVs), transmissible gastroenteritis virus of swine (TGEV), and its derivative, porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCoV) (Carstens, 2010; Adams & Carstens, 2012). CCoV causes a highly contagious disease of dogs that primarily attacks the intestinal tract. It was discovered in 1971 in Germany during an outbreak in guard dogs (Pratelli, 2006). More recently, strains of this enteric canine coronavirus have been identified with different properties, including pantropic strains of the enteric virus (Decaro et al., 2013).

CCoV invades and replicates in the villi of the small intestine and infection is difficult to identify; symptoms often resemble those of other viruses such as canine parvovirus and canine distemper virus. It causes diarrhea, lethargy and decreased appetite. The disease is also highly contagious with an incubation period of 1-3 days and is spread through the feces of infected dogs, who usually shed the virus for six to nine days, but sometimes for six months following infection.

There are two strains of canine coronavirus (the enteric group 1 strain and the respiratory group 2 strain) which produce different symptoms. Canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV, Group II) is similar to strain OC43 of bovine and human coronaviruses and was first isolated in 2003 from dog lung samples in the UK (Erles et al., 2003). CRCoV is a part of the kennel cough complex and is spread in kennel-like situations where dogs have high contact with one another or infected surfaces. Dogs that catch it have mild symptoms such as cough, sneezing, and nasal discharge. Unlike canine respiratory coronavirus, a vaccine exists against canine enteric coronavirus (CCV), but it does not cross-protect against the respiratory strain.

 

REFERENCES

  • Adams MJ, Carstens EB. (2012). Ratification vote on taxonomic proposals to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2012). Arch. Virol. 157: 1411–1422.
  • Canine Coronavirus. Coronaviridae In Fenner’s Veterinary Virology (Fifth Edition), 2017.
  • Carstens EB. (2010). Ratification vote on taxonomic proposals to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2009). Arch. Virol. 155: 133–146.
  • Decaro et al. (2013). European Surveillance for Pantropic Canine Coronavirus. Vol 51, No 1 Journal of Clinical Microbiology p. 83– 88.
  • Erles et al. (2003). Detection of a group 2 coronavirus in dogs with canine infectious respiratory disease. Virology. 310 (2): 216–23.
  • Pratelli A (2006). Genetic evolution of canine coronavirus and recent advances in prophylaxis. Vet Res. 37 (2): 191–200.